Saturday, April 14, 2007

Appendix B.07.iv. - Reference Tools (t-z):

(to return to the main document, click here, http://standtoyourduty.blogspot.com)

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B.07.iv. Reference Tools (t-z):

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Thomson Gale’s Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine states:

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[in "Energy Medicine"]

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"energy medicine is based upon the belief that changes in the ‘life force’ of the body […] affect human health and can promote healing […] the notion of a life force or energy is shared by people around the world. Since ancient times, traditional cultures have believed that a special energy vitalizes all life. This energy is known as chi, prana, pneuma, orgone, mana, ether, odyle, élan vital, bio-cosmic energy, and many other names. Early ayurvedic references to a life force, or prana, go back to the eighth century B.C. In the West, as early as the sixth century B.C., Pythagoras conceived of a life energy, or pneuma, visible in a luminous body. A century later, Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, recognized the body's natural capacity for healing, or vis medicatrix naturae. He instructed physicians to find the blocking influences both within a patient and between them and the cosmos, in order to restore the healing life force”;

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(click here,

http://health.enotes.com/alternative-medicine-encyclopedia/energy-medicine)

(also here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/energy-medicine-1)

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Thomson Gale's "U*X*L Complete Health Resource - Healthy Living V2 Health Encyclopedia" states:

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"alternative medicine [...] sectarian medicine: medical practices not based on scientific experience; also known as alternative medicine [***...] qi (or chi): life energy vital to an individual's wellbeing. [...] prana, or the life force/life energy [...] qi: life energy. As well as having balanced yin and yang, a person should be concerned with having balanced qi, or life energy. In English, qi has been called 'life energy,' 'vital life energy,' 'life force energy,' or 'life activity.' This energy is invisible and is considered vital to each person. Acupuncturists believe that a balanced flow of this energy is important to a person's health. If the flow is interrupted at any point, some parts of the body are going to be affected and not function at their best. This may lead to illness or disease. In order to restore health, qi must be rebalanced. The practice of acupuncture, then, works to rebalance the flow of qi and allow the body to naturally heal itself [...] homeopathy grew out of a movement known as sectarian medicine. (Sectarian medicine can be compared to what today is called alternative medicine. That is, sectarian medicine was set apart from conventional medicine) [...] the process also involves shaking the substance vigorously, something Hahnemann believed imbued the mixture with energy [...] in the 1800s, sectarian medicine included Thomsonianism (the foundation for herbal medicine, based on the healing arts practiced by Native American women and popularized in mainstream society in the early nineteenth century by New Hampshire farmer Samuel Thompson, 1769–1843). Sectarian medicine also embraced Grahamism (named after Sylvester Graham (1794–1851), which advocated proper nutrition and hygiene to fight disease and sickness) [...] allopath: a kind of doctor who advocates the system of medical practice making use of all measures that have proved to be effective in the treatment of disease [...] alternative medicine: medical practices that fall outside the spectrum of conventional allopathic medicine [...] naturopathy: a kind of alternative medicine that focuses on the body's inherent healing powers and works with those powers to restore and maintain overall health [...] specialties of naturopathy [...] naturopathic medicine has many different specialties which include [...] homeopathy: works to strengthen the body's immune system [...] Chinese medicine: follows ancient beliefs that unify the body and the mind and restore balance to the body's energy force, referred to as qi. Includes acupuncture and acupressure";

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(click here,

http://www.faqs.org/health/Healthy-Living-V2/Alternative-Medicine.html)

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Thompson Gale’s World of Health states:

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"the philosophy that underlies naturopathic medicine is called vitalism";

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(click here,

http://www.bookrags.com/research/naturopathic-medicine-woh/#bro_copy)

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the Toronto Public Library states:

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[in "Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): A Brief Guide"]

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"chi or qi or ki [...] the fundamental life energy of the universe.... In the body, it is the invisible vital force that creates and animates life.... Chi travels through the body along channels called meridians";

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(click here,

http://vrl.tpl.toronto.on.ca/helpfile/he_c0028.html)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20050327140453/http://vrl.tpl.toronto.on.ca/helpfile/he_c0028.html)

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the Traverse City Eagle Record states:

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[in "More Support For Alternative Medicine Techniques"{per Stockwell, T.L. (DC ?)}]

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"two of the most utilized ‘alternative’ therapies, according to recent studies, are acupuncture and chiropractic. The entirety of these approaches to health care continues to be excluded from integrative medicine programs throughout the country because they challenge the very foundation of medical thought. These methods traditionally allow healing to occur from the inside out. That is, they recognize that there is an energy vital to life that coordinates all of the body's processes. From this view, the body is inherently a self-healing, self-regulating unified organism that performs best with no interference. This approach is often referred to as vitalistic. Meridian therapy is a vitalistic and ancient Chinese approach to wellness: disturbances to the vital energy, or chi, lead to sickness and disease, and when the vital energy is restored, the body returns to balance and wellness. Western medicine is beginning to embrace the acupuncture component of this vitalistic approach; however, western acupuncturists use needles to treat symptoms, not to balance vital energy. Chiropractic care is another vitalistic approach to health and wellness. Chiropractors recognize that vital energy, or innate intelligence, can be disrupted by chemical, mental or physical stresses. Techniques, including chiropractic adjustments to the spine, and information regarding nutrition and lifestyle issues are used to remove these disruptions and encourage lifestyle changes that honor the body's natural processes and allow healing to take place. Traditional or allopathic[!] medicine has begun to embrace the spinal manipulation component of this vitalistic approach; however, traditional medicine uses spinal manipulations to treat symptoms, not to balance vital energy. Testing that allows an allopathic physician to demonstrate a minimal knowledge of holistic medicine will deceive the public into thinking they are receiving a truly holistic or vitalistic approach to health";

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(click here,

http://www.record-eagle.com/2000/dec/12stockw.htm )

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20010830231938/http://www.record-eagle.com/2000/dec/12stockw.htm)

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Twin Cities Public Television states:

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[in "The New{!} Medicine"]

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[likely borrows language from Carrol's Skeptic's Dictionary]

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"spirit: naturopaths believe the body is joined to a supernatural soul and a non-physical mind, and all three must be treated as a unit. This belief is rooted in mysticism and vitalism, a doctrine that claims all living things have an inner force or energy that gives them life";

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(click here,

http://thenewmedicine.org/timeline/naturopathy)

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UK Therapists states:

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[in "Naturopathy"]

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"naturopaths believe the body has a natural state of equilibrium, known as 'homeostasis', and a 'vital force' that facilitates healing […] it's also thought that an accumulation of toxins in the body - caused by poor elimination of waste products, ingesting chemicals or additives, or the inhaling pollutants - can weaken the immune system and suppress the body's vital force";

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(click here,

http://hypno-healers.com/12035.html)

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the Ultralingua Online Dictionary states:

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[in “Vitalism”]

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"a doctrine that life is a vital principle distinct from physics and chemistry";

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(click here,

http://www.ultralingua.com/onlinedictionary/?service=ee&text=vitalism)

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urologychannel.com states:

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[in "Overview"]

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"naturopathic medicine is a system of medicine that uses natural therapeutics to maintain health and bring about cure. It is based on vitalism";

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(click here,

http://www.urologychannel.com/naturopathic/index.shtml)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20010820090704/http://www.urologychannel.com/naturopathic/index.shtml)

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Vancouverplus.ca states:

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[in "Alternative Medicine"]

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"naturopathic medicine. Similar to homeopathy in its emphasis on the body's inherent capacity to heal itself, naturopathic medicine is a completely natural and holistic approach to promoting health and well-being. As an offshoot of the vitalistic approach to medicine, naturopathic techniques stimulates the flow of the body's vital force or energy to promote the individual's own inherent healing abilities. Naturopathic remedies include the use of dietary modifications, exercise, massage, acupuncture and various other alternative therapies";

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(click here,

http://www.vancouverplus.ca/feature/health_beauty_and_wellbeing/60108/alternative_medicine.jsp)

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the Vashon-Maury Island Beachcomber states:

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[in "Homeopath Makes House Calls"{as reported by Pollack, C. (? ?){09-26-2007}]

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"Dr. Hannah Albert [ND NCNM], an Island naturopathic physician who specializes in homeopathy [...] in addition to seeing patients in her office in Seattle, Albert offers home visits on Vashon [...] homeopathy aims to treat 'like with like' [...] symptoms are part of the body’s attempt to heal itself [...] medication may be given to support this self-healing response. To make homeopathic prescriptions, substances that cause symptoms similar to the disease in large quantities are heavily diluted — the weaker the dilution, the stronger the remedy. Proponents of homeopathic treatment believe that it can harmonize and re-balance the vital force -- often called chi -- and thereby restore health [...] 'conventional medicine is a necessity for life-threatening conditions' said Albert [...] 'but for the real deep healing that incorporates one’s body, mind and emotional state, I turn to homeopathy and other forms of natural medicine'";

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(click here,

http://www.vashonbeachcomber.com/portals-code/list.cgi?paper=90&cat=23&id=1071215&more=0)

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Vision Magazine states:

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[in "Make Your Lifestyle Something to BRAGG About!"{per Bragg, P. (ND ?, PhD ?)}{04-2008}]

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"fasting begins the self-cleansing of the inner body machinery. When we stop eating, our vital force, which is used to chew, digest and assimilate food as well as eliminate waste, is used to detoxify, purify and heal the body. Fast­ing is a miracle cleanser and rejuvena­tor";

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(click here,

http://www.visionmagazine.com/archives/0804/feature_bragg.html)

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Webster's 1913 Dictionary states:

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[in "Vitalistic"]

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"(biol.) pertaining to, or involving, vitalism, or the theory of a special vital principle";

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(click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/vitalistic)

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Webster’s New Millennium Dictionary of English states:

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[in "Life Force"]

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"[1] the vital force or impulse of life; one’s source of vitality, spirit, energy, and strength; also called elan vital […2] the soul";

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(click here,

http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=life+force&r=66)

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WellFx.com states:

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[in "Therapies: Naturopathy"]

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"[NOT!] scientific principles. Naturopathic medicine is vitalistic in its approach, embracing the beliefs that life is more than the sum of its parts and that living systems have an innate intelligence that constantly strives for health. Botanical medicine, homeopathy, physical medicine, clinical nutrition, and lifestyle counseling are the primary modalities employed by naturopathic physicians. In particular, botanical medicine and clinical nutrition have increasing bodies of scientific studies to justify their use. The way in which these therapies are applied is unique to the principles of naturopathic philosophy";

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(click here,

http://www.wellfx.com/InfoBase/ther_Naturopathy.doc_.html)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20050303232201/http://www.wellfx.com/InfoBase/ther_Naturopathy.doc_.html)

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Whole Health Now {“dedicated to the future and integrity of homeopathy”; staff includes Pais, G. (ND ?, DHANP AANP)} states:

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i.

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[in "Professional Homeopathy Terms - A Glossary"]

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"the higher the potency, the stronger the stimulation of the vital force […] dynamis -- life energy, vital force […] geginwirking (counter action) -- Hahnemann divides the symptoms we see into two different types: those which result from the first encounter between the vital force and the external agent, and the ones which are a result of the vital force's reaction to the symptoms of that primary encounter-counter action […] lebenskraft -- life force or life power […] mesmerism -- healing force by which a well-intentioned man exerts his strong will over a patient with or without touching him, or even at some distance, in such a way that the vital force of the healthy mesmerizer gifted with this power dynamically flows into the patient […] primary effects -- every power that acts on life, every medicine, alters the vital force more or less and brings about in human health certain modifications of greater or lesser duration. Although it is a product of both the medicinal and the vital force, this primary action nevertheless belongs more to the domain of the former […] secondary effects -- our vital force strives to oppose its energy to this influence. This, its life-preserving reaction, is an automatic activity called secondary effects […] vigor vitae -- life force […] vital force - the energy that maintains life in the individual. See aphorisms 9-12 of the [Hahnemann's] Organon";

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(click here,

http://www.wholehealthnow.com/homeopathy_pro/pro_glossary.html)

(click here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20050301023325/http://www.wholehealthnow.com/homeopathy_pro/pro_glossary.html)

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ii.

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[in "Homeopathy INFO"]

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"homeopathic philosophy. When a person becomes ill, it is the whole that is sick: body, mind, spirit. The body manifests symptoms of illness but it is not the origin of the illness. Upon death, the physical body remains, but it is no longer curable. That which is curable, the 'vital force', has left the body. The origin of illness lies in an imbalance of the vital force. The symptoms expressed by the body, mind, and spirit are the manifestation of that imbalance. By matching the symptoms of illness with the appropriate homeopathic remedy, the vital force returns to balance. The symptoms disappear as the person heals themselves […] only one homeopathic remedy is given at any one time. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain the action of multiple homeopathic remedies given all at once. The response of the vital force would be unpredictable and ambiguous […] to affect the vital force, a similarly energetic, homeopathic remedy must be employed […] glossary terms […] dynamis - life energy, vital force […] vital force - the energy that maintains life in the individual (see [Hahnemann's] Organon aphorisms 9-12)";

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(click here,

http://www.wholehealthnow.com/homeopathy_info/)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20050207012809/http://www.wholehealthnow.com/homeopathy_info/)

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Wikipedia states:

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{I date these because Wiki entries are public access, and thus volatile -- particularly, prone to vandalism and 'single editor bias' -- though, time-wise, an entry tends to become even, containing both advocacy and criticism} {I haven't ever and plan never to post to Wiki since I use the resource as reference material and I feel that would be a conflict of interest}.

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i.

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[in "Naturopathic Medicine"{04-12-2006}]

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"the principles of naturopathic medicine. Naturopathy is based on six tenets or principles [...] first do no harm [...] the natural life force [when something 'clearly religious' is labeled 'natural' as opposed to supernatural] of the individual should be supported to facilitate healing [...] the body's innate capacity to recover from illness and injury";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturopathic_Medicine)

(archived here 12-2004,

http://web.archive.org/web/20041214134319/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturopathic_Medicine)

(for the archive.org history of this web page click here,

http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturopathic_Medicine)

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ii.

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[in "Life Force"]

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ii.01.{v.08-14-2006}

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"the term life force or lifeforce can refer to: the soul, spirit, or other vitalistic energy; prana, qi; the odic force; the etheric body and the etheric plane (spirituality)";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_force)

(archived here {08-2005},

http://web.archive.org/web/20050831061031/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_force)

(for the archive.org history of this web page click here,

http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_force)

(also click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/life-force#copyright)

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ii.02.{v.06-03-2007}

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"life force is a concept of spiritual energy";

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(links as above)

[defunct](for a youtube slideshow of this, click here {00.00.10-00.0021},

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-PVKYoJXBk)

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iii.

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[in "Vitalism"{08-14-2006}]

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"modern medical vitalism, as represented by such schools as homeopathy, naturopathy, acupuncture, anthroposophy, biodynamic agriculture and chiropractic [...] vitalism is the doctrine that ‘life forces’ are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. That element is often referred to as the ‘vital spark’, ‘energy’ or ‘élan vital’, which some equate with the ‘soul’. Vitalism has a long history in medical philosophies. Most traditional healing practices posited that disease was the result of some imbalance in the vital energies which distinguish living from non-living matter. In the Western tradition, these vital forces were identified as the humours; eastern traditions posited similar forces such as qi, prana, etc. Vitalism is largely seen as pseudoscientific";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitalism)

(archived here 05-2006,

http://web.archive.org/web/20060513214719/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitalism)

(for the archive.org history of this web page click here,

http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitalism)

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iv.

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[in "Prana"{08-14-2006}]

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"prana […] is a Sanskrit word meaning 'breath' and is understood as the vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and the vital energy in all natural processes of the universe. It is a central concept in Eastern medicine and yoga where it is understood to flow through a network of fine subtle channels called nadi […] the presence of prana is said to be what distinguishes a living body from a dead one. When a person (or any other living being such as an animal) dies, the prana, or life force, is thought to leave the body through one of several orifices. Prana is also a term which can be further classified into subcategories, referred to as pranas. According to Hindu philosophy these are the vital principles of basic energy and subtle faculties of an individual that sustain physiological processes";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prana)

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v.

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[in "Qi"{08-14-06}]

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"qi, also commonly spelled ch'i […] or ki […] is a fundamental concept of traditional Chinese culture. Qi is believed to be part of everything that exists, as in ‘life force’ or ‘spiritual energy’ […] references to qi, and similar philosophical concepts, as a type of metaphysical energy that sustains living beings are found in many belief systems, especially in Asia. Philosophical conceptions of qi date from the earliest recorded times in Chinese thinking. One of the important early figures in Chinese mythology is Huang Di, or the Yellow Emperor. He is often considered a culture hero who collected and formalized much of what subsequently became known as traditional Chinese medicine […] theories of traditional Chinese medicine assert that the body has natural patterns of qi that circulate in channels called meridians in English. Symptoms of various illnesses are often believed to be the product of disrupted, blocked, or unbalanced qi movement through the body's meridians, as well as deficencies[sp.] or imbalances of qi in the various zang fu organs. Traditional Chinese medicine often seeks to relieve these imbalances by adjusting the circulation of qi in the body using a variety of therapeutic techniques. Some of these techniques include herbal medicines, special diets, physical training regimens (qigong, tai chi, and martial arts training), massage to clear blockages, and acupuncture, which uses fine metal needles inserted into the skin to reroute or balance qi […] claims that control of qi allows one to transcend normal physical and biological processes are widely regarded as pseudoscience by the scientific establishment […] some complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches not only assume its existence but believe that the purported subtle energy running through and surrounding the body can be manipulated so as to cultivate increased physical, psychological and spiritual health. Acupuncture along with other practices of TCM, ayurveda and many other traditional disciplines worldwide provide examples of similar beliefs […] the concept of a life-energy inherent in all living beings seems to be a fairly universal archetype, and appears in numerous ancient religions and systems of metaphysics (in addition to having been borrowed by George Lucas's science-fiction films). Analogies to numina [that is deities and spirits] in other societies include: Polynesian mythology, mana; Australian aboriginal mythology, maban; Egyptian mythology, ka; Greek mythology, pneuma; Roman mythology / Christianity, spiritus; Hebrew mythology, ruah; Inuit mythology, inua, sila; Leni Lenape mythology, manetuwak; Norse mythology, seid; Druidry, awen; Yoruba mythology, oloddumare. Also related are the philosophical concepts of: European alchemy and philosophy -- aether (or ether), quintessence; Hindu philosophy, prana";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qi)

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vi.

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["Supernatural"{04-18-06}]

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"supernatural [...] see also [...] vitalism - the doctrine that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. Often, the nonmaterial element is referred to as the soul, the 'vital spark,' or a kind of energy [nonscientific...] idealism (philosophy) - any theory positing the primacy of spirit, mind, or language over matter [naturopathy uses 'underlying']. It includes claiming that thought has some crucial role in making the world the way it is [...] compare with [...] naturalism (philosophy) - which rejects the validity of explanations or theories making use of entities inaccessible to natural science. Materialism (philosophy) - the view that the only thing that can truly be said to 'exist' is matter; that fundamentally, all things are comprised of 'material'. Materialism is typically contrasted with dualism, idealism, and vitalism";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supernaturally)

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vii.

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[in "National College of Naturopathic Medicine"{09-02-06}]

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"naturopathic medicine is heir to the vitalistic tradition of medicine in the Western world. This is evidenced by its emphasis in treating disease through the stimulation, enhancement, and support of the inherent healing power of the body. Chosen methods of treatment respect this natural healing process";

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{note: the "natural healing process" that is a supernatural entity! See Pizzorno's "Total Wellness" for equation of the VMN=HPN=SPIRIT; question: when is that which is "natural" that which contains the "supernatural"? answer: naturopathy; as that which is supposedly scientific that which contains the explicitly supernatural -- naturopathy}

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_College_of_Naturopathic_Medicine)

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viii.

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[in "Classical Homeopathy"{01-20-2007}]

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"classical homeopathy, is the modern term for homeopathy that follows the canonical (i.e. classical) traditions of remedy prescription, holistic case taking, etc. first laid down by Hahnemann in the Organon of the Medicine and subsequently confirmed and developed by many classical homeopaths […including] Dr. Kent [books by Hahnemann and Kent were required at UBCNM…] among the most prominent classical homeopaths nowadays are Georgos Vithoulkas and Rajan Sankaran [who were recommended in homeo. class at UBCNM…] the principles […] theory of vital force [this theory is not ‘in the scientific sense,’ it has no factual basis, it is an article of faith {believed in though without evidence}…] the concept of vital force, which is governing the human body comprehensively, needs a single identity. Therefore the medicine should be one to correct the disturbances and dishormony[sp.] of the body by a single medicine at a time […] theory of vital force. Among the medical science[s], homoeopathy [homeopathy IS NOT a part of ANY SCIENCE, actually {its concepts actually are SCIENTIFICALLY REFUTED}] believes that it is the vital force which is responsible for the different manifestations of life. Hahnemann writes in aphorism 10, about the vital force, [somewhat paraphrased here:] the material organism without the vital force is capable [of] no sensation, no function, no self preservation; it derives all sensations, and performs all the functions of life solely by means of the immaterial being (the vital force) which animates the material organism in health and in disease. The vital force in the healthy condition, maintains the normal functions and sensations of the organism. When the vital force is not dynamically deranged by the morbific dynamic influences, it is normal in this stage. When the vital force is influenced by the morbific dynamic agents, it deranges and causes abnormal sensations and functions, which are manifested outwardly through the material body as abnormal sign and symptoms, which constitute the disease syndromes. The cure is possible when the vital force aided itself to rise the recovery. When vital force is weak, debilitated, exhausted and not provoked itself, the recovery of normal health is difficult";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_homeopathy)

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ix.

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[in "Homeopathy"{12-02-2006}]

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"homeopathy views a sick person as having a dynamic disturbance in a hypothetical ‘vital force,’ and so reject the standard medical diagnoses of named diseases […] nearly as important as Hahnemann to the development of homeopathy was James Tyler Kent (1849 – 1921). Kent's influence in the USA was limited, but in the UK, his ideas became the homeopathic orthodoxy by the end of the First World War. His most important contribution may be his repertory, which is still used today. Kent's attempt to rescue an idealized pure homeopathy from what he saw as its degenerate mongrel forms was authoritarian, as he sought to re-emphasize the metaphysical and clinical aspects of Hahnemann's teachings, in particular: insistence on the core doctrines of miasm and vital force";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeopathy)

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x.

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[in "Chiropractic"{11-12-06}]

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"chiropractic vertebral subluxation […] D.D. Palmer, using a vitalistic approach, imbued the term subluxation with a metaphysical and philosophical meaning […] the idea that all diseases were the result of a subluxation was in line with the common thinking of the day; that there was one cause for disease. The vitalistic concepts implied an intelligent governing entity […] readily perceived as spiritual constructs by many both inside and outside the profession […] the body’s self-healing capacity. In 1998, Lon Morgan DC, a reform chiropractor, wrote that: ‘innate intelligence clearly has its origins in borrowed mystical and occult practices of a bygone era. It remains untestable and unverifiable and has an unacceptably high penalty/benefit ratio for the chiropractic profession. The chiropractic concept of innate intelligence is an anachronistic holdover from a time when insufficient scientific understanding existed to explain human physiological processes. It is clearly religious in nature and must be considered harmful to normal scientific activity’ […] the untestable […] universal intelligence […] innate intelligence […] vitalistic […] cannot be proven or disproven […] chiropractic has both materialistic qualities that lend themselves to scientific investigation and vitalistic qualities that do not";

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(click here,

http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Chiropractic)

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xi.

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[in "Innate Intelligence"{01-20-2007}]

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"innate intelligence is a chiropractic term to describe the organizing properties of living things […] coined by Daniel David Palmer, the founder of chiropractic […a] vitalistic concept states that all life contains innate (inborn) intelligence and that this force is responsible for the organization, maintenance and healing of the body […] chiropractors believed that they removed the interference to the nervous system (by way of a spinal adjustment) and that when the spine is in correct alignment, innate intelligence can act, by way of the nervous system, to heal dis-ease [!] within the body […an] early metaphysical construct, the terminology of innate intelligence is considered potentially detrimental to the profession's development and reputation as it seeks acceptance in the greater scientific community […] innate as vitalistic ‘explanation’ - If using a vitalistic philosophy, innate can be used to give a name to that which creates the vital force, often a ‘part’ of God. Innate as metaphysical premise – ‘when used as an a priori assumption, rather than as a hypothetical construct’ […i.e.] at Life University, they have ‘embraced the idea that humans are spiritual beings whose lives are directed by universal laws including the natural, vitalistic, innate ability to develop, heal and adapt as long as the body is kept free of interferences’ […] antiquated metaphysical jargon which has no reference to reality […] ‘chiropractors can’t have it both ways. Our theories cannot be both dogmatically held vitalistic constructs and be scientific at the same time. The purposiveness [teleology-finalism], consciousness and rigidity of the Palmers’ innate should be rejected’ […] ‘belief in 'immaterial' intelligences is a matter of faith, not of science. What I can say with some certainty is that such concepts have no constructive role to play within the realm of natural philosophy. Innate intelligence fails as a hypothetical construct because it is not testable, and fails as a metaphysical assumption in that it has not been productive in any unique way in the generation of testable hypotheses’ […] ‘innate intelligence clearly has its origins in borrowed mystical and occult practices of a bygone era. It remains untestable and unverifiable and has an unacceptably high penalty/benefit ratio for the chiropractic profession. The chiropractic concept of innate intelligence is an anachronistic holdover from a time when insufficient scientific understanding existed to explain human physiological processes. It is clearly religious in nature and must be considered harmful to normal scientific activity’";

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(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innate_intelligence)

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xii.

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[in "Natural Health"{03-16-2007}]

.

"in alternative medicine, natural health is an eclectic self-care system of natural therapies concerned with building and restoring health and wellness via prevention and healthy lifestyles. Natural health includes diet, exercise, naturopathy, nutripathy, herbalism, natural hygiene, homeopathy, massage therapy, relaxation techniques (e.g. yoga, tai chi), acupuncture, sauna, aromatherapy, ayurveda medicine, and Kneipp therapy [...] vitalism. The most fundamental tenet of the natural health philosophy is that the human body has the capacity to heal itself. In natural health, all healing is essentially self-healing, a basic property of all living beings. Vitalism is an ancient concept that can be traced back to the body's own innate vitality, vital energy, vital force, or the 'vis medicatrix naturae' (i.e., the inherent wisdom of the body) of Hippocrates (c.460-377BC), the father of medicine, who wrote that 'the natural healing force within us is the greatest force in getting well'";

.

(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_health)

(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,

http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_health)

.

xii.

.

[in "Odic Force"{02-26-2007}]

.

"the odic force (also called od [...] odyle [...] is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach [...] the odic force found no favor among mainstream scientists, and belief in it survives today as one among many concepts of spiritual energies associated with living things";

.

(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odic_force)

.

xiii.

.

[in "Spiritual Energy"{v.06-03-2007}]

.

"in new age terminology, energy means various kinds of spiritual forces, often related to the concept of life (compare vitalism). It is sometimes explained in terms of electromagnetism, odic force, karma etc. [...] see also: qi, prana, orgone, the force, new age, vitalism, odic force, good vibrations, esoteric, cosmology, energy(spirituality)";

.

(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritual_energy)

.

xiv.

.

[in "Energy (Spirituality)"{v.06-03-2007}]

.

"energy in spirituality, refers to a widespread belief in an inter- or intra-personal forces, for which no empirical evidence has yet been found [...spiritual energies / entities include] the Christian idea of the soul or spirit; the traditional Chinese qi; the Indian chakra, shakti, prana or kundalini; the Japanese idea of reiki; the New Age/paranormal aura; the 'orgone energy' of Wilhelm Reich; the morphogenetic fields of biologist Rupert Sheldrake; the odic force of chemist Carl von Reichenbach; biofields [...] the National Institutes of Health has issued a statement on the subject of biofields: 'the biofield has defied measurement to date by reproducible methods. Therapies involving biofields are based on the concept that human beings are infused with a subtle form of energy. This vital energy or life force is known under different names in different cultures, such as qi in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), ki in the Japanese Kampo system, doshas in Ayurvedic medicine, and elsewhere as prana, etheric energy, fohat, orgone, odic force, mana, and homeopathic resonance [...] theories of spiritual energy are not validated by the scientific method [!], thus are dismissed as non-empirical beliefs [specific articles of faith; not supported by evidence] by the scientific community. Theories of spiritual energy are considered to be pseudoscience or quackery";

.

(click here,

[defunct] (for a youtube slideshow of this, click here{00.00.25-00.02.18},

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-PVKYoJXBk)

.

xv.

.

[in "College of Naturopathic Medicine UK and Ireland"]

.

"naturopathy, or nature cure, is underpinned by a fundamental principle - vis medicatrix naturae - the healing power of nature [...] medicine, religion and science were intimately related and man was seen as a whole - a physical, mental, emotional and spiritual being. The same vital force or chi (qi) that made up the universe and nature flowed through man and it was his dislocation from this source that caused illness. Early naturopaths realized that if you could restore the vital force to the patient, the body would naturally heal itself [...] modern times [...] strangle[s] the life force in our bodies";

.

(click here,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/College_of_Naturopathic_Medicine_UK_and_Ireland)

(archived here,

)

(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,

)

.

.

Wiktionary states:

.

i.

.

[in "Vitalism"{01-28-2007}]

.

"the doctrine that life involves some nonmaterial 'vital force,' and cannot be explained scientifically";

.

(click here,

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/vitalism)

.

ii.

.

[in "Prana"]

.

"life-breath, life principle, or life force in Hindu teaching";

.

(click here,

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Prana)

.

.

Wordnet states:

.

{WordNet 1.7.1 Copyright © 2001 by Princeton University}

.

i.

.


[in "Life Force"]

.

"the noun life force has one meaning: meaning #1: (biology) a hypothetical force (not physical or chemical) once thought by Henri Bergson to cause the evolution and development of organisms. Synonyms: vital force, vitality, elan vital";

.

(click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/life-force#copyright)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20050924212433/http://www.answers.com/topic/life-force)

.

ii.

.

[in "Vital Force"]

.

"the noun vital force has one meaning: Meaning #1: (biology) a hypothetical force (not physical or chemical) once thought by Henri Bergson to cause the evolution and development of organisms. Synonyms: life force, vitality, elan vital";

.

(click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/vital-force)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20060410151511/http://www.answers.com/topic/vital-force)

.

iii.

.

[in "Vitality"]

.

"the noun vitality [literally, life-li-ness!] has four meanings [...the third per] (biology) a hypothetical force (not physical or chemical) once thought by Henri Bergson to cause the evolution and development of organisms. Synonyms: life force, vital force, elan vital";

.

(click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/vitality)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20051125125757/http://www.answers.com/topic/vitality)

.

iv.

.

[in "Elan Vital"]

.

"the noun elan vital has one meaning […] (biology) a hypothetical force (not physical or chemical) once thought by Henri Bergson to cause the evolution and development of organisms. Synonyms: life force, vital force, vitality";

.

(click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/elan-vital)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20050329091645/http://www.answers.com/topic/elan-vital)

.

v.

.

[in "Life Force, Vital Force, Vitality, Elan Vital"]

.

"(biology) a hypothetical force (not physical or chemical) once thought by Henri Bergson to cause the evolution and development of organisms";

.

(click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/life-force-vital-force-vitality-elan-vital)

.

vi.

.

[in "Hypothetical"]

.

"based on hypothesis";

.

(click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/hypothetical)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20051115113516/http://www.answers.com/topic/hypothetical)

.

vii.

.

[in "Hypothesis"]

.

"the noun hypothesis has 3 meanings […1)] a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations […2)] a tentative theory about the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena. Synonyms: possibility, theory [in the lay sense of 'yet to be supported'…3)] a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence. Synonyms: guess, conjecture, supposition, surmise, surmisal, speculation";

.

[scientifically speaking, a hypothesis is not a theory -- a theory is fact- and evidence- laden, highly supported as opposed to speculation; vitalism as an explanation / as an hypothesis to explain, is not even scientifically acceptable, never mind supported by scientific evidence. See NABT's statement on scientific integrity, click here, >http://web.archive.org/web/20040609032255/http://www.standardscience.com/nabt_integrity.html<]

.

(click here,

http://www.answers.com/hypothesis)

(archived here,

http://web.archive.org/web/20060104084031/http://www.answers.com/hypothesis)

.

viii.

.

[in "Force"]

.

"(physics) the physical influence that produces a change in a physical quantity; [e.g.] 'force equals mass times acceleration'";

.

[this is why the term "vital or life force" is a myth, there is no such measured force in the scientific sense]

.

(click here,

http://www.answers.com/topic/force-3)

.

.

the Wordsmyth Dictionary states:

.

i.

.

[in "Vitalism"]

.

"the doctrine that a vital force radically different from all physical and chemical phenomena causes and sustains life";

.

(click here,

http://www.wordsmyth.net/live/home.php?script=search&matchent=vitalism&matchtype=exact)

.

ii.

.

[in"Life Force"]

.

"see élan vital";

.

(click here,

http://www.wordsmyth.net/live/home.php?script=search&matchent=life+force&matchtype=exact)

.

iii.

.

[in “Elan Vital”]

.

“in the philosophy of Henri Bergson, the vital force within living things that causes growth, the development of form, and evolution”;

.

(click here,

http://www.wordsmyth.net/live/home.php?script=search&matchent=elan%20vital&matchtype=exact)

.

.

WSOCTV.com states:

.

[in "Complementary and Alternative Medicine"]

.

"acupuncture is an ancient method of healing based on the belief that the body contains a life force, called qi, which travels along specific pathways in the body. Health problems occur when the flow of qi is disrupted. Acupuncture works by placing tiny needles along specific points in the energy pathways to restore the flow of qi [...] reiki is a form of energy medicine based on the belief that a universal life force flows through all living things. Weakness or disruption of the life force leads to health problems or emotional imbalance. In a reiki session, a practitioner channels life energy to the client’s body [...] therapeutic touch is another form of energy medicine [...] the therapist’s hands are then moved in a rhythmic pattern to ease the congestion and restore the balance of energy";

.

(click here,

http://www.wsoctv.com/health/19604216/detail.html)

.

.

.

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